[FS#3752] netifd defaults an invalid bridge STP value for forward_delay
openwrt-bugs at lists.openwrt.org
Sun Apr 25 18:51:24 BST 2021
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User who did this - Scott Shambarger (sshambar)
Attached to Project - OpenWrt/LEDE Project
Summary - netifd defaults an invalid bridge STP value for forward_delay
Task Type - Bug Report
Category - Base system
Status - Unconfirmed
Assigned To -
Operating System - All
Severity - Low
Priority - Very Low
Reported Version - Trunk
Due in Version - Undecided
Due Date - Undecided
Details - netifd defaults the STP forward_delay lower than the minimum allowed by the protocol, causing the BPDU packets to be ignored by conforming implementations, risking bridge loops.
The relevant limits are set in IEEE 802.1D-1998 section 8.10.2 Table 8-3: the allowable forward_delay range is 4 - 30 seconds. netifd sets the initial default to 2 seconds.
I tested this with several of my Netgear managed switches; they ignore the invalid "2 second" STP packets. Correcting the forward_delay to within limits (4s) results in the router accepting the OpenWRT STP as the root bridge (since it has a lower bridge-id).
netifd should definitely not be defaulting to invalid values (even if it, and the kernel, allow the values to be set).
Here's a patch to fix the default:
@@ -875,7 +875,7 @@ bridge_apply_settings(struct bridge_state *bst, struct blob\
/* defaults */
cfg->stp = false;
- cfg->forward_delay = 2;
+ cfg->forward_delay = 4;
cfg->robustness = 2;
cfg->igmp_snoop = false;
Specifically, the packet is invalid as it fails the Spanning Tree Algorithm in section A.9, step 17c.
NOTE: Since the 1998 version of the standard requires subscribing to IEEE, you can also find the limits in the "free to download" updated 802.1D-2004 standard, section 17.14, Table 17-1 for the RSTP (which has the same forward delay limits as STP).
On the subject of "additional possible fixes".... (only suggestions)
The very low Forward Delay of 4 seconds still results in "non-conforming" behavior by OpenWRT, but at least no longer "breaking" behavior. Section 8.10.2 of 802.1D-1998 states:
A Bridge shall enforce the following relationships:
2 × (Bridge_Forward_Delay – 1.0 seconds) >= Bridge_Max_Age
... so even if the default Forward Delay is increased to 4 seconds, the default Max Age should also also be reduced to 6 seconds (kernel currently defaults to 20 seconds).
Also the minimum value for Forward Delay of 4 seconds is calculated (in section B.4.5) based on a Hello Time of 1 second, so that value should also be set (kernel currently defaults to 2 seconds).
Neither of these updates are critical (they work at their current defaults), but would just create "sensible" timers for STP.
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